Gravity and warped time

Cosmic objects warp space and time
(Image adapted from Alexander Antropov via Pixabay)

Curved space and warped time?! Many relativistic concepts can seem confusing at first. Together with a physics teacher and two experts in Einsteinian physics, I have identified three particularly confusing issues in general relativity:


  • warped time and gravitational time dilation
  • coordinates and physical reality
  • straightest paths in curved spaces


In our open-access paper, we explain these conceptually tricky concepts and present instructional strategies that are suitable for students at the secondary school level.


We hope that teachers and interested readers will find our combination of pedagogical and content-specific perspectives valuable - both to deepen their knowledge of relativistic phenomena and to teach these topics in the classroom.

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